Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models

To be added

Population models

MASTEP ( is a Metapopulation model for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Effects of Pesticides and describes the decline and subsequent recovery of invertebrate populations after a periodic exposure to pesticides. The modelled landscape for MASTEP is represented as a lattice of connected cells, which have a dimension of 1 by 1 metre. The MASTEP model is an Individual Based Model (IBM) that includes processes of natural mortality, pesticide induced mortality, reproduction and movement between cells. It takes into account density dependence in population regulation and, in case of the stream scenario, medium-distance transport of invertebrates due to water flow. The model is currently parameterised for aquatic populations of Asellus aquaticus, Gammarus pulex, Chironomus sp. and univoltine and multivoltine mayflies, but more species will be added.


Risk assessment models

ERA-AQUA ( is a decision support system that is developed to estimate risks of veterinary medicinal products applied in pond aquaculture for the targeted produce, surrounding aquatic ecosystems, consumers and trade. The ERA-AQUA can be used to perform risk assessments in a wide range of aquaculture scenarios based on information on environmental characteristics, aquaculture management practices and physico-chemical and toxicological properties of the compound under study.

PERPEST ( is an information model designed to Predict the Ecological Risks of PESTicides. The underlying concept of this is Case-Based Reasoning. In the model, the Case-Base comprises results from microcosm and mesocosm experiments. Previous experiences (results of field experiments) have been stored in the memory and used to predict direct effects in new situations or with other compounds. The model output shows the direct effects of eight groups of endpoints simultaneously.

PRIMET ( is a decision support system for assessing Pesticide RIsks in the tropics to Man, Environment and Trade that is based on risk assessment procedures used in the European Union. The DSS is able to estimate the risks of pesticide application to 1) aquatic life, 2) terrestrial life, 3) the use of groundwater as drinking water and 4) dietary exposure via the consumption of groundwater, vegetables, fish and macrophytes. The risks are assessed at the household level, i.e. actual pesticide application data on a farmer’s level is needed as input parameters. The risk assessment is expressed in Exposure Toxicity Ratio’s which are calculated by dividing the exposure by the safe concentration.